皇冠即时比分

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双眼视觉学概述

2015-07-30 15:20:22 来源: 多宝视

        双眼视觉皇冠即时比分是形成双眼的过程,即一个外界物体的形象分别投射到两眼视网膜对应点上(主要是黄斑区),神经兴奋沿视路传入大脑,大脑高级中枢(视皮层)把来自两眼的视觉信号分析、综合成为一个完整的、具有立体感觉的过程。双眼视觉功能并非一眼加一眼的简单数学计算,而是能产生单眼视觉所无法提供的许多功能,为人类更好生存、更优质生活和更高效工作提供了条件。当单眼异常,或出现双眼协调异常,则会出现一系列的临床症状,带来视觉工作的诸多不便。双眼视觉学是眼视光学和眼科学领域的重要内容,也是多学科的交叉点。

       BENKECHENGJIANGJIESHAOZHENGCHANGSHUANGYANSHIJUEDEFASHENG、FAZHAN、ZHONGDIANCHANSHUSHUANGYANSHIYICHANGDELINCHUANGJIANCHAHECHULIFANGFA,BINGNENGJIESHAOGUIFANHUADEERTONGSHUANGYANSHIJUEYICHANGDEZHENDUAN、ZHILIAOYUANZEHEXUNLIANFANGFA。

  一、正常双眼视觉功能的发生、发展

  1、SHUANGYANSHIJUEDESHENGLIJIZHI:SHUANGYANSHIJUESHIYIZHONGJIWEIJINGXIFUZADESHENGLIXIANXIANG,LIJIEQIJIZHIXUYAOZHANGWOYIXIAGAINIAN:

  1.1SHIWANGMOCHENGFEN:DANWEIMIANJIDESHIWANGMOSHOUDAOSHIJUECIJIHOU,SHENJINGCHONGDONGYANSHILUCHUANDAOSHIPICENG,CONGSHIWANGMODAOSHIPICENGSUOYOUCANYUZHEIYIZHIJUEGUOCHENGDEZUZHIZONGCHENGWEISHIWANGMOCHENGFEN。SHIWANGMOCHENGFENDETEXING:GANZHIWAIJIEWUTI、FANGXIANGZHIJUE(KONGJIANTOUSHE)。

皇冠即时比分  1.2SHIWANGMODUIYINGDIAN(DUIYINGCHENGFEN):LIANGYANSHIWANGMOSHANGJUYOUGONGTONGSHIJUEFANGXIANGDESHIWANGMOCHENGFEN,LIANGYANHUANGBANZHONGXINAOSHIYIDUIZUIZHONGYAODEDUIYINGDIAN。

  1.3SHIJIEYUANYUPanumKONGJIAN:SHIJIEYUAN(Horopter):YOUCHENGVieth-MullerYUAN、SHUANGYANDANSHIJIE。JITONGGUOZHUSHIDIANYUERYANJIEDIANSUOHUADEYUAN。WUXIANYUANDEHUMIANCHENGWEIJICHUMIAN。PanumKONGJIAN:SHIJIEYUANNEI、WAIYIDINGJULIDEWUTI,HUIYINQISHUANGYANQINGWEIDECHAYI,DANBUCHANSHENGFUSHI,ZHEIGEJULIYUZHENGQIANFANGZHAI,ZHOUBIANKUAN,GAIQUYUWEIPanumKONGJIAN。PanumKONGJIANNEIWUTIBEIGANZHIWEILITIDEDANYIYINXIANG。

皇冠即时比分  1.4SHENGLIFUSHI:CUNZAISHENGLIXINGFUSHITISHIYOUSHUANGYANDANSHI。

皇冠即时比分  1.5RONGHEGONGNENG:ZHIJUEXINGRONGHE(sensory fusion)HEYUNDONGXINGRONGHE(movement fusion):TONGGUOJIAOZHENGXINGRONGHEFANSHESHIXIAN,BAOKUOJIHEFANSHEHEFENKAIFANSHE。

皇冠即时比分  1.6LITISHIJUE:XINGCHENGLITISHIJUEDEJICHUSHINENGGANZHISHUANGYANSHICHA,BAOKUOJIAOCHASHICHA、FEIJIAOCHASHICHADENG。LINGWAI,YOUYUCUNZAIXINLIYINSUHEJINGYANDENGDANYANXIANSUOXINGCHENGDEDANYANSHENDUXIANSUOYENENGZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGPANDUANSHENDUGAN。

  2.XINGCHENGSHUANGYANSHIJUEDEBIBEITIAOJIAN:

  2.1ZHIJUEYINSU:

皇冠即时比分  aSHUANGYANSHIHUIJUEZHIJUEZHENGCHANGHUOJINSI:LIANGYANSUOJIANWUXIANGDEXINGZHUANG、DAXIAO、MINGAN、YANSEDENGJUNXUYIZHIHUOJINSI;

皇冠即时比分  bDANYANHUANGBANBUNENGHENGDINGDIZHUSHITONGYIMUBIAO(DANYANZHUSHILI);

  cSHUANGYANTONGSHIZHIJUE

  dZHENGCHANGDESHIWANGMODUIYING;

  eRONGHELI

  2.2YUNDONGYINSU:

  SHUANGYANYUNDONGXIEDIAOYIZHI:BAOCHISHUANGYANZAIGEZHENDUANYANWEIJUNNENGXIEDIAOYIZHIYUNDONG(GONGEYUNDONGYUYIXIANGYUNDONG);TONGSHIJUYOUZHENGCHANGJIHEYUFENKAIGONGNENG。

  3.ZHONGSHUYINSU:SHUANGYANSHIYEZHONGDIEBUFENBIXUGOUDA,QIESHIJUEPIZHIZHONGSHUFAYUZHENGCHANG。

  4.JIANLIYIXILIEDEJICHUFANSHE:

皇冠即时比分  4.1SHUANGYANSHIJUEFANSHEBAOKUODAICHANGGUSHIFANSHEHEDINGWEIGUSHIFANSHE。DANGYIGEGUANGCIJILUOZAISHIWANGMOZHOUBIANBU,SHIWANGMOGANZHIHOUJIKEYINQIFANSHEHUODONG,SHIYANQIUZHUANDONGERJIANGWUXIANGYIZHIHUANGBANBU。CIJIWEISHUANGYANSHIJUEFANSHE,CHUSHENGHOU4YUELINGDEYINGERJIFAYULESHUANGYANSHIJUEFANSHE,GAIFANSHERENWEIRONGHEFANSHEDEJICHU,CISHISHANGMEIYOURONGHEXUQIU。

  4.2RONGHEFANSHE:YOUYULIANGYANSHIWANGMODUIYINGDIANDEWUXIANGNENGBEIGANZHIWEITONGYIWUTI,SUOYIDANGYIYANWUXIANGTOUSHEDAOFEIDUIYINGDIANSHI,JIKEYINQIRONGHEFANSHE,SHIWUXIANGHUIDAODUIYINGDIANSHANG,SHIXIANSHUANGYANDANSHI。

  4.3FUCOUFANSHE:WUXIANGYIJINSHICIJILESHUANGYANNIECESHIWANGMO,CISHIWUXIANGMEIYOULUOZAISHUANGYANSHIWANGMODUIYINGDIAN,SHIJUECIJITONGGUOSHILUCHUANDAOZHIZHENYESHIPIZHIZHONGSHU,SHENJINGFANSHECHONGDONGCHUANDAOZHIZHENYEZHONGNAOSHUJIPerliaHEERCIJISHUANGYANNEIZHIJISHOUSUODAOZHIJIHEYUNDONGDEFASHENG。6YUELINGDEYINGERYIJUYOUFUCOUGONGNENG,ZHI2SUIZUOYOUSHIFAYUCHONGFEN。

  4.4DIAOJIEFANSHE:SHIJINWUSHIYINQIDIAOJIEFANSHE。

  SHIJUEFANSHEDEFAYUJUYOUSHIJIANXING,YUE2-3SUISHIGESHIJUEFANSHEFAYUJIEJINCHENGRENSHUIPING,5-6SUISHIFAYUJIBENWANCHENG。

皇冠即时比分  5.SHUANGYANSHIJUEGONGNENGLINCHUANGFENJI:BAOKUOTONGSHIZHIJUEGONGNENG、RONGHEGONGNENGHELITISHIJUEGONGNENG。

皇冠即时比分  6.YANWEIPIANXIEHOUDESHIJUEZHIJUEDAICHANGBIANHUA:YANWEIPIANXIEHOUDESHIJUEZHIJUEDAICHANGBAOKUOFUSHIYUHUNXIAOJIZHIJUEXINGDAICHANG,ZHIJUEXINGDAICHANGBAOKUOSHIJUEYIZHI(JIZHIXINGYIZHI、GUDINGXINGYIZHIHEDAOZHIDEPANGZHONGXINZHUSHI)HEXINGCHENGYICHANGSHIWANGMODUIYING。

  二、双眼视觉问题的临床工作思路

皇冠即时比分  1.ZHENDUANJIANLIZAIQUANYANKEDEJICHUSHANG:

  SHUANGYANSHIJUEJIHUANDEZHENDUANHECHULISHIJIANLIZAIQUANYANKEZHENDUANSIWEIDEJICHUSHANG,XUYAOQUANMIANDECAIJIHUANZHEBINGSHI、YANKEXUEJIANCHAHEQUGUANGJIANCHA,TONGGUOPINGGUSHUANGYANGONGNENG,CONGERFENXISHUANGYANSHIYICHANGDEYINGXIANG。

  

  SHUANGYANSHIGONGNENGYICHANGDEZHENDUANSILU:SHUANGYANSHIYICHANGZAIQUANMIANYANKEJIANCHAHESHUANGYANSHIGONGNENGPINGGUDEJICHUSHANG,ZHENDUANSILURUXIA:


皇冠即时比分  2.LINCHUANGJIANCE:SHUANGYANSHIJUEGONGNENGYICHANGXUYAOJINGGUOXILIEJIANCE,GAIJIANCEYOUXILIEFANGFAGOUCHENG,WENTIDEQUEDINGXUYAOYIGEHUOZHEDUOGECELIANGDEZONGHEFENXICAINENGHUODE。

皇冠即时比分  2.1FEIXIESHIXINGSHUANGYANGONGNENGYICHANGHEDIAOJIEYICHANGJIANCHA

皇冠即时比分  FEIXIESHIXINGSHUANGYANGONGNENGYICHANGHEDIAOJIEDEJIANCEZHUYAOYOUYIXIAXILIEGOUCHENG:

皇冠即时比分  (1)JIHEJINDIAN(NPC)

皇冠即时比分  (2)YINXIECELIANG(YUANJUHEJINJU),YIBANCAIYONGVon GraefeFANGFA,BAOKUOSHUIPINGHECHUIZHIDE。ZAIJINJUCELIANGGUOCHENGZHONGTONGGUO+1.00DFUJIA,HUODEDIAOJIEXINGJIHEYUDIAOJIEDEBILV(AC/ABILV)

  (3)JUSANNENGLICELIANG,ZHUYAOSHIBI/BOCELIANG

皇冠即时比分  (4)XIANGDUIDIAOJIE,JIFUXIANGXIANGDUIXINGDIAOJIE(NRA)HEZHENGXIANGDUIXINGDIAOJIE(PRA)

  (5)DIAOJIEFUDU

  (6)DIAOJIECIJIHEDIAOJIEFANYING

  (7)DIAOJIELINGHUODU

  2.2XIESHIHERUOSHIDEJIANCHA

皇冠即时比分  XIESHIHERUOSHIDECELIANGZAICELIANGCHENGXUSHANGBIXUZUNXUNYIDINGDEBUZHOU,JIBENSHUNXU、NEIRONGHESILURUXIA:

  (1)QUEDINGDANYANSHIJUEGONGNENG,BINGGENJUFAXIANDEWENTI,CENGCENGSHENRUQUEDING,RUSHIFOURUOSHI,YOUFOUPIANXINZHUSHI,MEIYANDEZHUSHIWENDINGYUFOU,HUANGBANSHIFOUWANZHENG。

皇冠即时比分  (2)QUEDINGSHUANGYANZHUSHINENGLILE,GENJUFAXIANDEWENTI,YIANZHAOKEXUECHENGXUZHUBUJIANCE,RUYOUFOUXIESHICHUXIAN,PIANXIELEIXING,XIESHILIANG,HENGDINGXINGHAISHIJIANXIEXING。

  (3)YANWEIDEXIETONGKONGZHI(ZHENDUANYANWEI):RU9GEYANWEIZHUANGTAIPIANXIEYOUFOUCHAYI,YUANJINZHUSHIZHUANGTAIPIANXIEYOUFOUCHAYI。

  (4)GANJUEDUIYINGXING(SHIWANGMODUIYINGXINGZHI):SHUANGYANZHUSHISHIFOUZHENGCHANGSHIWANGMODUIYING,KEGUANXIESHIJIAOHEZHUGUANXIESHIJIAO。

  (5)SHIWANGMOXIANGDEXIANGSIXING:QUGUANGCANCHASHIFOUMINGXIAN,SHIFOUQUGUANGXINGRUOSHI。

  (6)GANJUERONGXIANG:RUGUOYOUZHENGCHANGDUIYINGDIAN,QUEDINGWEIZHONGYANG/ZHOUBIANRONGXIANG:RUGUOHENGDINGXINGXIESHIWURUOSHI,JIANCHASHIFOUYOUYIZHI,CELIANGYIZHIQUYUHEMIANJI。

皇冠即时比分  3.SHUANGYANSHIJUEWENTIDELINCHUANGCHULISILU

  SHUANGYANSHIJUEWENTIDECHULIYOUDUOZHONG,ZHUYAOBAOKUO:

皇冠即时比分  FEISHOUSHUFANGFA,BAOKUO:GEZHONGLEIXINGDEKUANGJIAYANJING、LENGJING、JIAOMOJIECHUJING;HESHIJUEXUNLIAN。

  SHOUSHUFANGFA,RUXIESHISHOUSHU。

  


  三、视觉训练的基本程序

  DUISHUANGYANSHIJUEGONGNENGYICHANGDEHUANZHEJINXINGJIAOZHENGHEXUNLIAN,QICHENGGONGYUFOUQUJUEYU:

  1.ZHENDUANDEZHENGQUEHEYOUXIAOSHUJUDEHUODE

皇冠即时比分  2.JIAOZHENGHEXUNLIANFANGANDEKEXUEQUEDING;

皇冠即时比分  3.HUANZHEDELIJIEHEPEIHE;

  4.YOUXIAODISUIFANG、ZHUIZONGHEFANGANDEKEXUEDIAOZHENG。

  四、视觉训练的基本要求

  (YI)XUNLIANNEIRONG

  临床上视觉训练可分为几大类:

  1.弱视训练:主要目的是提高弱视眼的视敏度,训练形式可以是多种多样,如注视训练、视敏度提高训练、抗抑制训练等。

  2.DIAOJIEXUNLIAN:ZHUYAOMUDESHITIGAODIAOJIEGONGNENG,RUDIAOJIELINGHUODUXUNLIAN,DIAOJIENENGLIXUNLIAN、DIAOJIEFANYINGXUNLIANDENG。

  3.RONGXIANGXUNLIAN:ZHUYAOZHENDUIFUCOUGONGNENGYICHANGZHE,BAOKUOYIXIETESHULEIXINGDEXIESHI。

  4.GONGNENGXINGYUNDONGXUNLIAN:ZHUYAOTIGAOYANGENZONG、SAOSHI、GUSHI/ZHUSHIDENGGONGNENGXINGYUNDONGSUZHI。

  GEZHONGXUNLIANYOUSHIKEYIXIANGHUJIAOCHA,RURUOSHISHIMINDUDADAOYIDINGCHENGDU,KEYIZENGJIAYIXIERONGXIANGXUNLIAN,TIGAOSHUANGYANSHIJUEPINGHENG;DIAOJIEXUNLIANGUOCHENGZHONGFUJIARONGXIANGXUNLIANKEYIGAISHANDIAOJIEHEFUCOULIANDONGDEGUANXIHEGONGNENG。

  (ER)XUNLIANSHIJIAN

皇冠即时比分  SHIJUEXUNLIANBUJINXUYAOYIDINGDEFANGSHI,ERQIERENHEYIZHONGXUNLIANFANGSHIDOUXUYAOYIDINGDESHIJIANHEYIDINGDELIAOCHENG,RUMEIZHOUXUYAOXUNLIANJICI,MEICIXUYAODUOSHAOSHIJIAN,JIGEYUEWEIYIGELIAOCHENG。MEIYIZHONGFANGFAJUNYOUQITEDINGDEXUNLIANSHIJIAN,DANGETIQINGKUANGBUTONG,FANGFAHEZUOGAIFANGFAXUYAODELIAOCHENGYEBUTONG,YINGZAISHIJUEXUNLIANFANGANKAISHIYOUYIDINGDEYUCE,BINGTONGZHIHUANZHEJIJIANHUREN,YIBIANGENGHAODIYICONG。

  (SAN)XUNLIANDEYIBANYUANZE:

  SHUANGYANSHIJUEGONGNENGYICHANGLINCHUANGCHULIFANGFAYOUDUOZHONG,YIFEISHOUSHUZHILIAOWEIZHU,JIBENFANGFAYOU:1)QUGUANGJIAOZHENG;2)FUJIAYUEDUJING;3)LENGJING;4)SHIJUEXUNLIAN。ZHILIAOMUDESHIDADAOHUANJIEZHENGZHUANG、GAIJINSHIJUEGONGNENG,YIZHENDUANBINGLILEIXINGBINGQIEGENJUDIAOJIE/JUSANGONGNENGJIANCECANSHUZUOWEIZHILIAOFANGFAXUANZEYIJU。

皇冠即时比分  DANGLINCHUANGQUEZHENWEISHUANGYANSHIJUEGONGNENGYICHANGBINGMINGQUEQILEIXINGSHI,XIANGYINGDEXUNLIANCHULIYUANZEWEI:XIANJIANDANHOUFUZA,XIANQIUJINGHOUZHILIAO。


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